In the EU-28, near to three fifths (57.6 per cent) of all of the graduates in 2017 had been ladies.

An analysis by industry of training reveals that there have been 1.4 times as numerous graduates that are femalein contrast to male graduates) for company, management and legislation, while higher ratios had been recorded for arts and humanities (2.0 times as much feminine graduates) as well as social sciences, journalism and information (2.1 times as much feminine graduates), increasing to 2.8 times as numerous feminine graduates for health insurance and welfare and peaking at 4.1 times as numerous feminine graduates for training (see Figure 2). In comparison, there have been 2.6 times as much male (in contrast to feminine) graduates for engineering, manufacturing and construction-related industries and 4.2 times as numerous male graduates for information and interaction technologies. Within the two smaller areas — farming, forestry, fisheries and veterinary areas, and solutions — the amount of graduates had been marginally greater for ladies than it had been for males.

An even more detailed photo is presented in Figure 3, which will show the amount of graduates by having a bachelor’s or a master’s level. Some 203 000 people in this field graduated with a bachelor’s degree and 150 000 with a master’s degree in 2017, the most frequently awarded degree — based on detailed fields of education — was for management and administration; across the EU-28. Medical and midwifery had been the next many common level course for the people graduating having a bachelor’s degree (121 000), accompanied by training technology (66 000). By comparison, medicine had been the 2nd most often granted level among those graduating having a master’s level (111 000), accompanied by training technology (62 000).

In accordance with how big is the populace aged 20-29 years, the number of tertiary graduates in technology, mathematics, computing, engineering, production and construction increased in the past few years.

Figure 4 shows the huge difference (in absolute values) between your quantity of male and female graduates in these areas for 2017, with very nearly doubly many male as female graduates when you look at the EU-28. The gender gap for this field of education was most marked in Luxembourg, Belgium and Austria, where the number of male graduates was 3.1, 2.8 and 2.7 times as high as the number of female graduates; there were also relatively large differences in Finland, Germany, Malta, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain and Lithuania in relative terms.

Teaching staff and student-academic staff ratios

There have been 1.5 million individuals teaching in tertiary education when you look at the EU-28 in 2017 (see Table 4) of which a minority that is small significantly less than 100 000 — provided short-cycle tertiary courses. One or more quarter (27.5 percent) for the tertiary education teaching staff in the EU-28 had been based in Germany, in just over one tenth each in Spain (11.3 per cent) together with great britain (10.5 per cent).

In comparison to the training staff in main and secondary training, where ladies had been into the bulk, nearly all tertiary training teaching staff were males.

Very nearly three fifths (56.6 per cent) regarding the EU-28’s training staff in tertiary education in 2017 had been males, a share that neared two thirds in Greece (65.7 per cent) and had been additionally above 60.0 per cent in Malta, Italy, Luxembourg, Czechia and Germany. In comparison, ladies taken into account a most of the tertiary education teaching staff in Romania (50.8 percent), Finland (51.9 percent), Latvia (56.4 per cent) and Lithuania (56.7 per cent).

In 2017, student-academic staff ratios in tertiary training averaged 15.4 over the EU-28 (excluding Denmark and Ireland). Among the list of EU Member States, the student-staff ratios that are highest had been recorded in Greece (38.7), while ratios of at the least 20 pupils per employee had been additionally recorded in Belgium, Cyprus and Italy. In comparison, student-staff ratios were in solitary numbers in Luxembourg (7.2 pupils per employee) and Malta (9.7) and had been additionally fairly reduced in Sweden and Denmark (2015 information).


Information concerning general public expenditure on tertiary education general to gross domestic item (GDP) are for sale to 27 for the EU Member States (no data for Croatia) — see Figure 5. sdc speed dating This ratio ranged in 2016 from 0.5 per cent in Luxembourg, 0.6 percent in Bulgaria and 0.7 per cent in Czechia, Romania, Ireland, Italy and Greece (2015 information) to 1.8 per cent into the Netherlands, Austria and Finland, 1.9 per cent in Sweden, peaking at 2.4 percent in Denmark (2014 information). In 2015, the ratio that is average the EU-28 (excluding Denmark and Croatia) had been 1.2 percent.

Supply information for tables and graphs

Data sources


The requirements for worldwide data on training are set by three organisations that are international

The origin of information utilized in this short article is a joint UNESCO/OECD/Eurostat (UOE) information collection on training statistics and also this could be the foundation for the core components of Eurostat’s database on training data; in conjunction with the joint information collection Eurostat additionally gathers information on regional enrolments and language learning that is foreign.

Legislation (EC) No 452/2008 of 23 April 2008 offers the appropriate foundation for the manufacturing and growth of EU statistics on training and learning that is lifelong. Two European Commission Regulations have actually been used regarding the utilization of the training and training data collection workouts. The very first, Commission Regulation (EU) No 88/2011 of 2 2011, concerned data for the school years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, while the second, Commission Regulation (EU) No 912/2013 of 23 September 2013, concerns data for school years from 2012/2013 onwards february.

More details concerning the data that are joint comes in a write-up from the UOE methodology.


The worldwide classification that is standard of (ISCED) could be the foundation for worldwide training data, explaining various amounts of training; it had been first developed in 1976 by UNESCO and revised in 1997 and once again last year. ISCED 2011 distinguishes nine levels of training: very very early youth education (level 0); primary training (degree 1); reduced additional training (degree 2); top additional training (degree 3); post-secondary non-tertiary training (level 4); short-cycle tertiary education (degree 5); bachelor’s or comparable (degree 6); master’s or comparable (degree 7); doctoral or comparable (degree 8). The very first outcomes predicated on ISCED 2011 had been posted in 2015 beginning with information when it comes to 2013 guide duration for data on pupils and staff that is teaching the 2012 guide duration for data on spending. This category types the cornerstone out of all the analytical information that is presented in this specific article.